Ultrasensitive Nano-Aptasensor to Detect Human Apolipoprotein



An aptasensor is a category of biosensors wherein the organic recognition factor is a DNA or RNA aptamer. In an aptasensor, the aptamer acknowledges the molecular goal towards which it was beforehand chosen in vitro.

Ultrasensitive Nano-Aptasensor  to Detect Human Apolipoprotein

​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Examine: Label-Free Electrochemiluminescence Nano-aptasensor for the Ultrasensitive Detection of ApoA1 in Human Serum. Picture Credit score: Kurup, C.P., Mohd-Naim, N.F., Keasberry, N.A., Zakaria, S.N.A., Bansal, V., Ahmed, M.U (2022) ACS Omega

An article revealed in ACS Omega introduced an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor primarily based on molybdenum sulfide/zirconium oxide/Nafion (MoS2/ZrO2/Naf) nanocomposite for the ultrasensitive and selective detection of human apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA1), utilizing the luminophore, tris(bipyridine) ruthenium (II) (Ru(bpy)32+).

The nanocomposite layer modified with chitosan (CS) facilitated glutaraldehyde (GLUT) crosslinking, which helped immobilize ApoA1 aptamers. As well as, numerous analytical methods have been used to characterize nanocomposites. Then again, ECL, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry helped analyze the aptasensor meeting.

Nanocomposites as electrode modifiers elevated the depth of the ECL sign. The interplay of the sensor floor with the ApoA1 biomarker produced an anionic setting that promoted the attachment of the aptamer-ApoA1 complicated to Ru(bpy)32+, thereby enhancing the ECL sign.

ECL aptasensor demonstrated wonderful sensitivity for ApoA1 with a detection restrict (LOD) of 53 femtograms per milliliter and a dynamic vary between 0.1 and 100 picograms per milliliter. The sensible software of the proposed aptasensor was demonstrated by measuring ApoA1 ranges in human serum samples, with 94-108% restoration charges.

 Aptasensors and ApoA1 Protein

Aptamers are synthetic nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) ligands that may be chosen from combinatorial libraries of artificial nucleic acids possessing particular binding traits to their targets.

Biosensors that make use of aptamers as recognition components are often known as aptasensors. The event of aptasensors has been carried out with completely different detection schemes from label-free strategies, resembling floor plasmon resonance (SPR) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements which have been reported to reinforce the development of this subject.

ECL is an ultrasensitive method that mixes chemiluminescence and electrochemical evaluation. As a result of there isn’t a excitation gentle supply, ECL is extra proof against dispersed gentle interference and autofluorescence background noise than photoluminescence. Moreover, the exact and reproducible potential of ECL initiates and regulates the ECL alerts.

Consequently, ECL sensors present reliable sensing techniques with sensing performance. Luminol and its derivatives, Ru complexes, and quantum dots are examples of ECL reagents utilized in biosensors. Tipropylamine (TPA) as a co-reactant and Ru(bpy)32+ as a label are incessantly used attributable to their excessive photon output and stability.

ApoA1 is a extremely correct marker of coronary coronary heart illness. ApoA1 is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL) protein concerned in reverse ldl cholesterol transport, lipoprotein metabolism, and atherosclerosis prevention. Due to this fact, the event of correct detection applied sciences for ApoA1 is essential for the early detection and remedy of associated issues.

Nano-Aptasensor for the Ultrasensitive Detection of ApoA1

Within the current research, a novel and facile ECL aptasensor primarily based on MoS2/ZrO2/Naf was developed for the selective detection of ApoA1 with excessive sensitivity. A screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was used because the working electrode, the floor was modified with a MoS2/ZrO2/Naf nanocomposite and compactly mounted with CS.

Modifying the electrode floor with the MoS2/ZrO2/Naf nanocomposite supplied a big electroactive floor space and facilitated electron transport, thereby bettering the electrochemical exercise for biosensing. Because of this, the MoS2/ZrO2/Naf-modified SPCE exhibited a 150% larger electroactive floor space than its unmodified counterpart.

Moreover, using GLUT as a crosslinking agent helped couple the ApoA1 aptamers with the modified electrode floor, ensuing within the fabrication of an SPCE/ MoS2/ZrO2/Naf/CS/GLUT/Apt-modified sensor.

Lastly, the ECL sign was generated by incubating the ready aptasensor in a phosphate buffer saline (PBS) resolution with potassium chloride (KCl), 50 micromolar Ru(bpy)32+, and 5 millimolar TPA. An improved ECL sign was obtained by forming an aptamer-ApoA1 complicated, the place the aptasensor supplied ECL intensity-based ApoA1 detection with ultrasensitivity.


Total, a MoS2/ZrO2/Naf nanocomposite-based ECL aptasensor was constructed to detect ApoA1. The floor space and electrochemical exercise of the nanocomposite elevated due to its superior bodily and chemical traits.

When incubated with Ru(bpy)32+ within the presence of TPA, the nanocomposite displayed a big ECL depth. The CS on the floor of the modified electrode aided the attachment of the crosslinking agent GLUT. Because of this, extra ApoA1 aptamers with amine terminal teams had been covalently immobilized, significantly enhancing detection sensitivity.

The ECL platform responded linearly to ApoA1 doses ranging between 0.1 and 1000 picogram per milliliter, with a LOD of 53 femtograms per milliliter. Because of the aptamer’s distinctive recognition and seize capability for ApoA1, it demonstrated excessive specificity for the goal ApoA1 protein within the presence of various interfering proteins. The developed ECL aptasensor demonstrated excessive stability and repeatability in addition to the detection of ApoA1 in human serum samples.


Kurup, C.P., Mohd-Naim, N.F., Keasberry, N.A., Zakaria, S.N.A., Bansal, V., Ahmed, M.U. (2022) Label-Free Electrochemiluminescence Nano-aptasensor for the Ultrasensitive Detection of ApoA1 in Human Serum. ACS Omegahttps://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.2c04300  

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