Antioxidant PDA-PEG nanoparticles alleviate early osteoarthritis by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and angiogenesis in subchondral bone | Journal of Nanobiotechnology



Cells, media, and reagents

Dopamine hydrochloride and mPEG-NH2 had been bought from Sigma-Aldrich (USA). Main BMMs had been cultured in α-minimum important medium (α-MEM; HyClone, USA) containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS; Gibco, USA), 100 U/ml penicillin, and 100 µg/ml streptomycin (Gibco, USA) at 37 °C, 5% CO2. RANKL and M-CSF had been bought from PeproTech (USA). H2O2 answer was bought from Beyotime Biotechnology (China) whereas stored at 4℃ whereas protected against gentle.

Synthesis of PDA-PEG NPs

PDA-PEG NPs had been synthesized as beforehand reported [27, 37]. Briefly, 100 mg dopamine hydrochloride was dissolved in 50 ml deionized of water. Below vigorous stirring, 0.4 ml of 1 M NaOH was added to the above answer. After self-polymerization for two h, the as-obtained PDA NPs had been collected after centrifugation (14,000 rpm, 10 min) then washed with deionized water 3 times. PDA-PEG NPs had been ready through mixing PDA NPs with mPEG-NH2 at a ratio of 1:2. After stirring for twenty-four h, the PDA-PEG NPs had been purified by centrifugation (14,000 rpm, 10 min) then washed with deionized water 3 times (Fig. 1a).

Characterization of PDA-PEG NPs

PDA-PEG NPs had been photographed with a TEM (JEOL 200CX, Japan). DLS and zeta potential of PDA-PEG NPs had been measured with a Malvern Zetasizer instrument (UK). The basic concentrations of PDA and PDA-PEG NPs together with N, C, and H had been measured with an automated elemental analyzer (Elementar vario EL III, Germany). XPS spectrum was measured with Thermo Scientific Ok-Alpha (USA). FT-IR spectra of PDA and PDA-PEG NPs have measured a Nicolet iS20 spectrometer (Thermo Scientific, USA). XRD was measured utilizing a SmartLab SE machine (Japan) at Cu Kα with a scanning fee of two min− 1. The UV–Vis-NIR absorption spectra of PDA and PDA-PEG NPs had been measured with a UV-3600i Plus machine (Japan).

BMMs isolation and tradition

All animal-related procedures had been authorized by the Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow College. BMMs had been harvested from femurs and tibias of 6-week-old C57BL/6J mice referring to a earlier examine [60]. Briefly, after sacrificing by anesthetic overdose, femurs and tibias of the mice had been harvested. Bone marrow was flushed from tibias and femurs then resuspended in whole α-MEM medium containing 30 ng/ml M-CSF. The media was modified each different day to take away the non-adherent cells. The BMMs at 80% confluence had been washed with PBS after which trypsinized for the next experiments.

Cytotoxicity assay

The results of PDA-PEG NPs on cell viability had been assessed by CCK-8 (Dojindo, Japan). BMMs (104 cells/properly) had been seeded in a 96-well plate and cultured for 12 h. Additional, the cells had been handled with varied concentrations of PDA-PEG NPs and H2O2 at completely different occasions. 100 µl of 10% CCK-8 answer was added to every properly, then the cells had been incubated for two h. The absorbance was measured at 450 nm with a microplate reader (Bio-Rad, USA). Cell viability was normalized to the management group.

ABTS and DPPH assay

The antioxidant actions of PDA-PEG NPs in water and natural solvent had been evaluated by ABTS and DPPH assay, respectively. A complete antioxidant capability assay package with a fast ABTS methodology was bought from Beyotime Biotechnology (China). The inexperienced ABTS•+ may very well be catalyzed to kind ABTS within the presence of antioxidants. The diploma of discolouration was quantified as a drop within the absorbance of 734 nm [61]. The antioxidant actions of PDA-PEG NPs had been calculated referring to Trolox, which was used as a typical. DPPH (Nanjing Jiancheng Bioengineering Institute, China) was dissolved in 80% methanol. PDA and PDA-PEG NPs at varied concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 100 µg/ml) had been combined with 100 µL DPPH answer and incubated for 30 min in the dead of night. The absorbance of response mixtures was detected at a wavelength of 517 nm. The unconventional scavenging exercise was calculated referring to a earlier examine [62].

ESR assay

ESR paramagnetic spectrometer (JEOL-FA200, Japan) was utilized to evaluate the power of PDA-PEG NPs to scavenge ROS in an acellular atmosphere. Scavenging of O2· was evaluated by mixing PDA-PEG NPs (100 µg/ml) with 100 mM 5,5-dimethylpyrroline N-oxide (DMPO; Dojindo, Japan), 0.5 mM hypoxanthine (Solarbio Life Science, China), and 0.05 U/ml xanthine oxidase (Solarbio Life Science, China), then incubated in 100% ethanol answer for 1 min. Then, the content material of O2· was decided utilizing ESR in accordance with the producer’s directions.

Intracellular ROS detection

ROS in BMMs had been measured by a DCFH-DA probe (Beyotime Biotechnology, China) referring to a earlier examine [63]. BMMs had been cultured with or with out 50 ng/ml RANKL for twenty-four h. Throughout incubation, cells had been administrated with completely different concentrations of PDA-PEG NPs. DCFH-DA answer was added on the focus of 10 µM, and the cells had been incubated in the dead of night for 20 min. Fluorescent alerts had been noticed by fluorescence microscopy (Leica TCS-SP5, Germany). Additional, ROS-positive cells in every subject had been calculated.

TRAP and actin ring staining assay

BMMs (104 cells/properly) had been seeded in a 96-well plate. After 12 h, BMMs had been handled with 50 ng/ml RANKL and 30 ng/ml M-CSF for inducing osteoclast differentiation. Through the induction, cells had been handled with various concentrations of PDA-PEG NPs (0, 25, 50, and 100 µg/ml). After inducing for 3 or 7 days, the cells had been fastened with 4% paraformaldehyde for 30 min. A TRAP staining package (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) was deployed referring to the producer’s instruction. Osteoclasts had been recognized as TRAP-positive cells which contained greater than three nuclei. The variety of TRAP-positive cells in every subject had been calculated utilizing Picture-Professional Plus software program (Media Cybernetics, USA). For actin ring staining, BMMs had been induced for osteoclast formation containing various concentrations of PDA-PEG NPs (0, 25, 50, and 100 µg/ml) for 3 days. Then cells had been successively stained with rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin (Abcam, USA) for 30 min and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI; Sigma-Aldrich, USA) for 10 min. The actin rings had been noticed by fluorescence microscopy and calculated with Picture-Professional Plus software program.

qRT-PCR assay

Whole RNA of cells was extracted from completely different teams utilizing TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, USA). cDNA synthesis was carried out with TaqMan Reverse Transcription reagent (Utilized Biosystems, USA), then the transcription-PCR was carried out by real-time PCR (ABI 7500, USA). The primers had been proven in Extra file 1: Desk S2. Relative mRNA expression was normalized to GAPDH mRNA stage and calculated by 2−ΔΔCt.

Western blotting

As reported beforehand [64], BMMs had been washed with PBS and lysed utilizing the radioimmunoprecipitation assay buffer (RIPA; Millipore, USA) containing protease and phosphatase inhibitors (Sigma-Aldrich, USA). The protein concentrations had been decided utilizing a BCA protein assay package (Beyotime Biotechnology, China). Whole 20 µg proteins had been separated by 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) after which transferred to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. The PVDF membranes had been additional blocked with 5% non-fat milk for two h and incubated with major antibodies at 4 °C in a single day. Lastly, PVDF membranes had been incubated with secondary antibodies for 1 h then washed with tris-buffered saline with Tween 20 (TBST) for 3 times. The fluorescent alerts had been detected utilizing the Odyssey imaging system (Li-Cor, USA). NF-κB household antibodies together with p-IκBα, IκBα, p-p65, and p65 had been bought from Cell Signaling Know-how (USA) and used at a dilution of 1:1000. MAPK household antibodies together with p-JNK, JNK, p-ERK, ERK, p-p38, and p38 had been bought from Cell Signaling Know-how (USA) and used at a dilution of 1:1000. NFATC1 and GAPDH antibodies had been obtained from Abcam (USA) and utilized at a dilution of 1:1000.

ELISA evaluation

BMMs (5 × 105 cells/properly) seeded in 6-well plates had been stimulated with 30 ng/ml M-CSF, 50 ng/ml RANKL, and varied concentrations of PDA-PEG for 3 days. The supernatant of cells was centrifuged (1400 rpm, 5 min) to acquire OC-CM. The focus of PDGF-BB in OC-CM was measured through a PDGF-BB ELISA package (Abcam, USA) in accordance with the producer’s pointers.

Tube formation assay

For assessing the results of PDA-PEG NPs on osteoclast-related angiogenesis, the tube formation assay was utilized. The OC-CM was respectively administrated with exogenous recombinant PDGF-BB (Peprotech, USA) at 100 ng/ml, anti-PDGF-BB antibody (Millipore, USA) at 10 µg/ml, or PDA-PEG NPs ready as talked about above at 100 µg/ml. Based on a earlier examine [65], 50 µl matrigel (BD Biosciences, USA) was deployed to a 96-well plate, then polymerized 1 h at 37 °C to kind a gel-like floor. HUVECs had been seeded at 104 cells/properly and incubated with varied OC-CM for six h at 37 °C in 5% CO2. Then, HUVECs had been stained with calcein-AM then photographed with fluorescence microscopy. The tube size in every subject was quantified utilizing Picture-Professional Plus software program.

Migration assay

8-µm transwell chambers (Millipore, USA) had been utilized to guage the migration of HUVECs. The chambers had been positioned on a 24-well plate, then HUVECs (2 × 104 cells) in 200 µl medium had been positioned within the chamber, in the meantime, 500 µl medium was added into the plate. Cells had been incubated with OC-CM and PDA-PEG NPs at 37℃ for 12 h. Then cells remaining within the higher chamber had been scraped with cotton swabs, cells within the decrease room had been fastened in 4% paraformaldehyde for 30 min and stained with crystal violet for 20 min. The migrated cells had been photographed with a lightweight microscope.

Institution of ACLT-induced OA mouse mannequin

Eighteen C57BL/6J mice (3-month-old male) had been obtained from Shanghai SLAC Laboratory Animal Firm (China). Mice had been fed in particular pathogen-free (SPF) circumstances and allowed free entry to industrial meals and water. ACLT was deployed to induce irregular mechanical loading-associated OA of the correct knee as described in earlier research [66, 67]. The sham operation was performed through opening the joint capsule after which suturing the incision. Eighteen mice had been evenly and randomly distributed into three teams. Mice in group 1 had been deployed to a sham operation, whereas mice in teams 2 and three had been subjected to ACLT of the correct knee. Moreover, mice in group 2 had been intraperitoneally injected with PBS, in the meantime, mice in group 3 had been intraperitoneally injected with PDA-PEG NPs (10 mg/kg) each different day till 4 weeks. PDA-PEG NPs had been deployed to mice 3 days after the ACLT induction. The focus of PDA-PEG NPs used on this examine was referred to in a earlier examine [27]. On the finish of the injection, the mice had been euthanized by anesthetic overdose.

Blood routine examination

On the finish of the 4 weeks post-injection, 200 µl blood pattern from every mouse was harvested from the eyeball then collected in heparinized tubes. The samples had been evaluated by Mindray BC-2800vet for analyzing the blood routine indexes.

Micro-CT scanning

The knee joints of mice had been separated then fastened in 4% paraformaldehyde for 48 h. Specimens had been scanned with micro-CT (µCT 80; Scanco, Zurich, Switzerland) in accordance with a earlier examine [68]. The parameters of micro-CT used on this examine had been as follows: voltage 70 kV, electrical present 114 µA, decision of 10 μm per pixel. After scanning, three-dimensional structural parameters which embrace BV, BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb. Sp was analyzed. The area of curiosity (ROI) was outlined as the entire subchondral trabecular bone in tibial plateaus of the knee joints.

Micro-CT based mostly microangiography

To show blood vessels in subchondral bone, microfilm injection compounds (Microfil MV-130, Circulation Tech, USA) for angiography had been deployed. Mice had been euthanized, then 0.9% regular saline answer containing 100 U/ml heparin sodium was used to flush the vascular system by means of the left ventricle. Additional, 4% paraformaldehyde was injected to repair the mice by means of the left ventricle as properly. The freshly ready microfil combination was pressured by means of the left ventricle. Mice had been positioned at 4 °C in a single day to make sure distinction agent polymerization, then mice had been dissected to reap the knee joints. Additional, the joints had been fastened with 4% paraformaldehyde for 48 h. Specimens had been decalcified in 10% EDTA for an additional 48 h to facilitate density variations of the vasculature from the encompassing tissues [18]. Specimens had been scanned by micro-CT at a decision of 9 μm isotropic voxel measurement, and a threshold of 180 based mostly on the two-dimensional tomograms. Vessel quantity (VV) and vessel quantity (VN) within the subchondral bone had been analyzed.

Histological statement

Samples had been decalcified in 10% EDTA for 4 weeks, then embedded with paraffin. Sagittal sections had been lower at 4 μm of the medial compartment of the knee joint and deployed to H&E and Safranin O-fast inexperienced (S&F) staining. OARSI rating was calculated to guage cartilage harm as beforehand described [69]. The OARSI scoring was based mostly on grade (0–6) and stage (0–4). OARSI rating = grade × stage, and OARSI scores vary from 0 to 24 utilizing this calculation methodology. To evaluate the biosafety of PDA-PEG NPs, inner organs together with coronary heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney had been embedded with paraffin for sectioning and H&E staining. Immunohistochemical staining was deployed to antibodies towards TRAP, CD31, MMP-13, and COL10 (Abcam, USA) at a dilution of 1:200. Sections had been incubated with diaminobenzene then counterstained with hematoxylin. The variety of positively stained cells was counted in per part. The proportion of positively stained cells was calculated. Three samples in every group and three sequential sections in every pattern had been stained and assessed. Photos had been photographed with a lightweight microscope.

Statistical evaluation

Knowledge had been expressed as imply ± normal deviation. Pupil’s t check was utilized for comparisons between two teams. One-way evaluation of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparisons amongst three or extra teams. P < 0.05 was thought of considerably completely different. The image “*” denoted p < 0.05, and “**” denoted p < 0.01. All knowledge evaluation was performed with SPSS 22.0 evaluation software program (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA).