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An optimized exosome manufacturing technique for enhanced yield whereas with out sacrificing cargo loading effectivity | Journal of Nanobiotechnology

Cell tradition

Alpha mouse liver 12 (AML12) cells and HEK293T cells have been cultured in excessive glucose DMEM medium (Logan, Utah, U.S.A.) containing 10% exosome-free FBS (fetal bovine serum), 1% L-glutamine and 1% penicillin–streptomycin (Logan, Utah, U.S.A.) in a humidified environment at 37 °C with 5% CO2. The exosome depleted FBS was obtained by eradicating exosome with ultracentrifugation at 120,000g for 3 h at 4 °C (Beckman Coulter X-90 centrifuge, SW41 Ti rotor).

siRNA transfection

AML12 cells have been transfected with scramble siRNA and siRNA goal genes of curiosity by utilizing HiGene transfection reagent (C1506, Applygen Expertise Inc.) in response to producer’s instruction. The designed sequences of si-NC, si-Rab4, si-Rab22a, si-Rab11a si-Rab35, si-Rab9, si-Nsf, si-Vps39, si-Vps18, si-Rab33b, si-Rab24, si-Tfeb and si-Rab14 (GenePharma) have been listed in Extra file 1: Desk S1.

Plasmid development, lentivirus bundle and an infection

Ldlr coding areas have been cloned into pWPI vector changing the IRES-EGFP as described beforehand [37]. The Ldlr expressing vector was transfected into HEK293T cells along with psPAX2 and pMD2G on the molar ratio of 4:3:1 with HighGene transfection reagent (ABclonal). Lentivirus particles have been harvested from the supernatant filtered via 0.45 μm filters 72 h after transfection and saved at − 80 °C. For an infection, AML12 cells cultured in plates have been incubated with the lentivirus on the MOI of 200 within the presence of polybrene (8 μg/ml).

Purple cell membrane particles preparation

Complete blood samples have been collected from the orbit of male mice (C57BL/6) aged 6–8 weeks with the addition of 1.5 mg of EDTA for anticoagulation goal. Blood samples have been centrifuged at 3000 rpm/min for 10 min at 4 °C to take away the plasma and picked up RBCs have been washed with pre-cooled 1× PBS for 5 occasions. Then, 0.1× PBS (PBS: deionized H2O = 1:9) was added and positioned at 4 °C for two h for hemolysis. The launched hemoglobin was eliminated by centrifugation at 12,000 rpm for 15 min, and the pellet was collected and washed for five occasions till the pellet turned gentle pink colour. The crimson cell membrane pellets have been re-suspended with a hydration resolution consisted of 1.8 ml of 1× PBS and 200 μl glycerol, adopted by homogenization 10 min at 10,000 rpm with a miniature high-speed dispersing homogenizer (F6/10, jingxin know-how, shanghai) beneath ice water bathtub.

Labeling of RCMPs and monitoring of mobile uptake

The RCMPs have been incubated with DiI at 37 °C for 20 min in darkish, and switch to 4 °C for 10 min, then centrifuged at 4 °C for 12,000g for 15 min to take away the unbound dye. The labeled RCMPs have been resuspend in PBS prior to make use of. AML12 cells have been incubated with DiI -labeled RCMPs for six h. Then, the medium was eliminated and AML12 cells have been washed twice with PBS. Mobile internalization of DiI-labeled RCMPs have been analyzed by laser scanning confocal microscope or circulation cytometer (Beckman CytoFLEX).

Exosome isolation and characterization

AML12 cells with transfection/an infection have been cultured in DMEM medium. For supplementation of RCMPs, cells have been added with RCMPs (80 μg/ml) and incubation for six h earlier than swap to exosome-free medium for extra tradition of 48 h. Cells have been discarded by centrifugation at 500g for 10 min and the residual mobile particles have been eliminated by centrifugation at 5000g for 20 min. The collected supernatants have been filtered via 0.22 μm filters, after which have been ultracentrifuged at 100,000g for two h (Beckman Coulter X-90 centrifuge, SW41 Ti rotor). The remoted exosomes have been resuspended in 1× PBS and saved at − 80 °C until use. Measurement distribution and focus of exosomes have been analyzed by ZetaView® instrument (Particle Metrix, USA). The samples have been loaded into the pattern chamber at ambient temperature. Then, the focus was calculated in response to the dilution fold.

For transmission electron microscopy evaluation of the exosome morphology, remoted exosomes have been allowed to be fastened for six h in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in phosphate buffer at 4 °C. Then the samples have been dried on a copper grid 5 min, adopted by speedy commentary at JEM-2000EX electron microscopic evaluation (HITACHI, HT7800/HT7700).

Electron microscopy and MVB quantification

AML12 cells transfected with si-NC and si-Rab4 have been washed with PBS and stuck with 4% paraformaldehyde at room temperature. Then, the cells have been added onto grid, stained (2% uranyl acetate) and imaged by electron microscopy (HT7800, Hitachi). MVBs numbers per profile have been calculated.


For immunofluorescence assay, AML12 cells with indicated therapies have been cultured in confocal dish (35 mm) and incubated for 48 h. Then, the tradition medium was discarded and the cells have been washed with PBS, adopted by repair with 4% paraformaldehyde for 20 min. Then, cells have been stained with main antibody (anti-HRS, sc-271455) in a single day, adopted by secondary antibody [Goat anti-mice 633, Invitrogen, A-21050)] at room temperature for 1 h at nighttime. Lastly, the nuclei have been stained with Hoechst (1:1000). Photographs have been processed utilizing laser scanning confocal microscope. HRS spots per cell have been calculated utilizing Picture J.

In vitro and in vivo monitoring of exosomes

Exosomes have been labelled with DiR/DiI by direct incubation with the dye (1 μM in ultimate focus, Invitrogen, China) at 37 °C for 10 min, after which the free dye was eliminated by centrifugation at 12,000 rpm for 10 min, and the precipitate was re-suspended with PBS.

For in vitro experiment, AML12 cells have been seeded into confocal dish and incubated with DiI-labeled exosomes (ultimate focus of 40 μg/ml) for six h. Cells have been then washed with PBS and stuck in 4% paraformaldehyde for 10 min at room temperature. The nuclei have been stained with Hoechst (C1022, Beyotime, China) for 10 min at room temperature, adopted by PBS 3 times. Mobile uptake of exosomes in vitro was noticed by confocal microscopy (Nikon, Tokyo, Japan). The entire experiment was saved in darkish.

For in vivo tracing, mice have been intravenously injected with freshly ready DiR or DiI-labeled exosomes samples. After 6 h, the DiR fluorescence sign of the entire mouse and main organs (coronary heart, liver spleen, lung and kidney) have been imaged by the in vivo imaging system (IVIS, PerkinElmer, Thermo Fisher, USA), and the DiI fluorescence sign was imaged by confocal microscopy on the tissue sections.

Western blotting

Protein lysis from cells, exosomes and tissues have been ready and the protein focus was decided by Pierce BCA Protein Assay Equipment (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, USA.). Protein Samples have been separated by 10% or 12% SDS-PAGE gels and transferred to nitrocellulose filter membranes. The nitrocellulose filter membranes have been blocked with 3% skim milk in tris buffered saline (TBS) containing 0.1% Tween-20 (TBST) at 4 °C in a single day, after which incubated with main antibodies adopted by a horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibodies (washed with TBST 3 times earlier than every operation, 5 min every time). Major antibodies used have been anti-LDLR (10785-1-AP, Proteintech), anti-GM130 (sc71166, Santa Cruz), anti-TSG101 (ab83, Abcam), anti-CD63 (ab134045, Abcam), anti-GAPDH (60004-1-lg, Proteintech), secondary antibodies used have been anti-Rabbit (7074, CST) and anti-Mouse (7076, CST).

Reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain response

The collected RNA of cells and exosomes have been extracted utilizing TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, USA), and complementary DNA (cDNA) was obtained by Transcriptor Reverse Transcriptase (Indianapolis, USA) in response to producers’ directions. qPCR reactions (in 20 μL system) have been carried out by FastStart Important DNA Inexperienced Grasp (Roche, Basel, Switzerland). The expression of goal gene at RNA ranges was normalized to Gapdh for comparability and calculated utilizing the two−∆∆Ct. For evaluation of siRab4 abundance in exosomes, RNA was remoted and reverse transcribed with miRNA transcriptase package. U6 served as inside management. All PCR reactions have been carried out in triplicates. The primer sequences have been utilized in Extra file 1: Desk S2.

Exosome remedy in Ldlr
−/− mice

All animal experiments have been authorised by the Animal Care and Use Committee of Air Power Medical College. Animal experiments have been carried out conforming to the Directive 2010/63/EU of the European Parliament. Ldlr−/− mice (C57BL/6 background) have been bought from the Mannequin Animal Analysis Middle of Nanjing College. All mice have been fed with high-fat weight-reduction plan for 8 weeks after which handled with indicated exosomes by way of tail vein injection on the dose of 4 μg/g physique weight as soon as per week for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks of exosomes intervention, all mice have been intraperitoneally injected with 1% pentobarbital sodium at 0.1 ml/10 g, after which have been killed by cervical dislocation. The principle tissues (coronary heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney and aortic) have been separated for subsequent evaluation. Blood samples have been collected from mice after in a single day fasting. All samples have been allowed to face at room temperature for two h then centrifuged at 4 °C for 3000g for 15 min. The collected supernatants have been assayed for AST, ALT, complete triglyceride, complete ldl cholesterol, LDL ldl cholesterol and HDL ldl cholesterol (Wuhan Servicebio Expertise CO, LTD). For histological research, the primary organs (coronary heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney) have been rigorously harvested and sectioned for H&E staining. Aorta, aortic roots and liver sections have been additional stained with Oil-red-O for lipid deposition evaluation. The physique weights of the mice have been recorded weekly for 8 weeks.

Statistical evaluation

Knowledge are expressed as imply ± SEM. A technique ANOVA and t take a look at have been used for distinction comparability by GraphPad prism 9.0. P values < 0.05 have been thought-about statistically vital.


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