2022 Indian EV Market Share — Begin Of The S Curve Evolution



2022 has been an thrilling 12 months for the Indian EV market. Therefore it is sensible to take inventory of issues on the place we’re and what the street forward appears to be like like.

Picture from TATA Motors

By Lakshmisha Okay S

All the info right here has been sourced by the Indian central (federal) dashboard (Vahan portal). The portal aggregates knowledge from all of the RTO (Regional Transport Workplaces) the place automobiles are registered. Nonetheless, not all states have onboarded onto Vahan. At the moment of the 36 States and Union Territories, 34 have onboarded. And of the 1428 RTOs, 1341 are registered with Vahan. The info that’s used accounts for 90–95% of all car gross sales in India. Therefore we is not going to be taking a look at absolute figures as they aren’t full, however we will have a look at the share of electrical automobiles in every phase and market share of assorted manufacturers. As these are proportional knowledge, they’d be extra nearer to precise figures and we will take the info from a directional sense.

At a high stage, throughout car segments, now we have seen super development in electrical automobiles. The explanations are widespread throughout the segments. The Russian invasion of Ukraine and the next spike in oil costs has actually pushed extra customers to electrical as price of working electrical begins to outweigh the upper price of acquisition. Moreover, the Indian authorities’s beneficiant subsidy through FAME II, coupled with subsidies from the state/provincial governments, have offered a serving to hand.

We’ll divide the Indian auto phase into 4 broad segments as is the norm within the automotive media right here. They’re

1) Two-wheelers — These embody all powered two-wheeled automobiles which have a most pace above 25 km per hour. They’re broadly of two classes — Scooters and Bikes.

2) Three-wheelers — These are three-wheeled automobiles (Tuk Tuks, Rickshaws) and embody each used for shifting folks and items.

3) Passenger automobiles — These primarily embody automobiles and different automobiles used for private mobility with greater than 3 wheels. For sensible functions, we will assume this to be equal to automobiles.

4) Business automobiles — These embody a variety of automobiles from massive vans, buses to mini vans and smaller good carriers.

Electrical Two-Wheelers

Allow us to begin with the star performer of 2022. Gross sales of electrical two-wheelers skyrocketed in 2022. The share of e-two-wheelers jumped from 1.1% in 2021 to 4.1% in 2022. That’s practically a 260% bounce from final 12 months. Simply to offer an thought of the change, in January 2021, Vahaan portal tracked gross sales of 5,264 electrical two-wheelers accounting for a mere 0.4% of complete gross sales. Come again to January 2022, the portal tracked gross sales of 29,748 automobiles accounting for two.62% of complete two-wheeler gross sales. This has additional elevated by December 2022, with Vahaan monitoring 64,476 gross sales accounting for five.7% of complete two-wheeler gross sales.

The rise in FAME II subsidy for two-wheelers helped on this turbo-charged development. At Rs. 15,000 per kwh ($185 per kwh), it makes the battery virtually free for producers, thus serving to them to achieve value parity with ICE alternate options. Moreover the launch of Ola electrical with its progressive electrical scooters (S1 and S1 professional) created quite a lot of buzz amongst widespread people outdoors of the normal EV fans. That is mirrored in Ola electrical reaching the highest spot inside a 12 months of launch within the two-wheeler EV area.

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Outlook For 2023

Whereas 2022 was a stellar 12 months, anticipate 2023 to see the expansion momentum improve additional. Ola electrical has introduced its most inexpensive electrical scooter S1 Air. At a value of Rs.84,999 (~$1000), it’s akin to high promoting two-wheeler mannequin from Honda motors (Honda lively) in value. Honda lively accounts for practically half of the overall scooter market or 12–13% of total ICE two-wheeler market.

[Side note: Like its Japanese parent, Honda is dithering in launching electric variants in India. If Ola S1 Air succeeds, expect to see serious impact on market share for Honda in the two-wheeler market as 60% of its sales comes from the scooter segment and majority of the electric transition is happening in this segment rather than in the other (motorcycles) segment.]

Given the sturdy efficiency of Ola electrical in 2022, the expectations are excessive for this mannequin. Ola electrical Founder & CEO expects to promote a complete of 1 million items by November 2023 throughout all fashions translating to a month-to-month run charge of 100,000 items, which is sort of 10x of the present run charge and 2x of all electrical two-wheeler gross sales. Along with new manufacturers like Easy Power and new fashions and elevated manufacturing from current gamers like Ather Power, I predict electrical share of the Indian two-wheeler market to achieve double digits in 2023. I anticipate to exit the 12 months with a EV share of 13–15% in December 2023.

That is vital achievement as a result of India has extra two-wheelers than automobiles (practically 5x when it comes to possession). Almost 62% of petrol consumption within the nation is accounted by two-wheelers. Therefore a fast transition into electrical will end in reductions in emissions, specifically within the congested metropolitan areas.

Vehicles (Passenger Automobiles)

Now coming to automobiles that are termed as Passenger Automobiles, gross sales of electrical (BEVs) stood at 1.1% in 2022. Whereas it is a small share, it did bounce 3x from 0.33% in 2021. What makes these figures vital is that the majority (60–70%) of that is contributed by a single mannequin — the Tata Nexon EV from Tata Motors. India is a market pushed by affordability, with the typical promoting value of automotive at $12,500 and the most cost effective electrical automotive obtainable in 2022 being greater than that.

A significant cause for the low share is the shortage of choices to prospects. The Indian automotive market is dominated by three teams — Japanese manufacturers (Suzuki & Toyota), Korean (Hyundai & Kia), and Indian manufacturers (Tata Motors & Mahindra & Mahindra). Amongst them solely Tata Motor has to-date made critical efforts at inexpensive electrical automobiles. The Korean manufacturers do have electrical automotive choices of their portfolio, however with a beginning value of $30,000 which is 3x the typical promoting value, the potential is proscribed. In the meantime Japanese manufacturers like in all places else are usually not even thinking about providing electrical and may consider doing so in 2030! They’re nonetheless taking a look at introducing out of date hybrid know-how to India.

Chart by creator

Chart by creator

Outlook For 2023

2023 is anticipated to be a breakthrough 12 months for electrical automotive market in India. The electrical market chief Tata Motors is launching essentially the most inexpensive electrical automotive but in India, the Tata Tiago, beginning at $10,500. The automotive has already seen enthusiastic response with the primary 10,000 bookings getting closed inside 24 hours, forcing the producer to increase the primary reserving measurement to twenty,000. The automotive has a ready interval of 4 months even earlier than launch. The automotive is anticipated to go on sale in Q1 of 2023 and market analysts anticipate the automotive to promote 3000 to 5000 items monthly, equal to 1–2% of total automotive market (together with ICE variants). We even have Mahindra & Mahindra launching the XUV400, its first electrical SUV, the all-electric SUV will likely be priced from INR 15.99 lakh (about $19,500) just like Tata Nexon EV (the present market chief). The Mahindra & Mahindra XUV400 can also be anticipated to begin supply in Q1 2023. Including all this up, we will anticipate the electrical market share to hit 2–4% in 2023 with an exit share of 4+% in December 2023. Whereas that is nonetheless far behind the likes of Europe and China, being the third largest car market (4th if EU is included as one) the tempo of electrification continues to be vital.


India is the largest marketplace for three-wheelers which incorporates each passenger and cargo automobiles. India has round 6 million of those on street. Amongst all of the car segments, this phase has actually leaped ahead with respect to electrification. The electrical share of three-wheeler market stood at 54% in 2022 up from 43% in 2021.

Outlook 2023

We will anticipate the momentum in the direction of electrification to proceed in 2023, albeit at a gradual tempo. Bajaj Auto, which has 60% share within the ICE three-wheeler market and whose model is synonymous with three-wheelers, is but to return out with an electrical variant. Moreover, a major share of the market (31% in 2022) is fabricated from CNG variants. Even after the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the working price differential between the electrical and CNG variants just isn’t vital sufficient to push the market fully to electrical. I anticipate the electrical market share to hit 60–65% in 2023.

Business Automobiles

Business automobiles in India span a variety of vehicular segments and embody buses, heavy obligation vans, mild passenger and cargo vans amongst others. As anticipated and seen globally, the penetration of electrical automobiles on this phase is proscribed. The share of electrical automobiles within the total industrial automobiles phase is 0.3% in 2022. This has remained related (with a slight dip) from 2021 when the share was 0.37%. Allow us to have a look at the broad sub-segments of this class.

Buses — Like the remainder of the world, that is the place most of electrification is happening. Buses in India are a mixture of non-public owned automobiles and authorities owned ones. Authorities owned ones embody each municipal and inside metropolis city transportation ones and lengthy distance intra-city journey. General this phase accounts for 20% of complete industrial car gross sales in India. Majority of the electrification is going on within the municipal/metropolis transportation phase. There are 28 states and eight union territories (federally administered) which every working totally different providers within the cities of their jurisdiction, therefore anticipate the transition to occur in bits and items with totally different businesses following totally different fashions. One factor to be famous is the union authorities (federal) initiative to pool in all the electrical bus necessities right into a single tender and thus attaining economies of scale. That is anticipated to expedite the transition.

Vans — Primarily talking, these are equal to the semis within the US and never be confused with the cybertruck class. They do each brief and lengthy haul cargo transportation. Together with each medium and heavy obligation vans, this phase accounts for 20% of the industrial car gross sales in India. There’s minimal electrification on this phase with just one or two electrical variants out there for medium haulage. See this to proceed for the subsequent few years till we see extra choices at an inexpensive value obtainable out there.

Vans — This phase is at present has seen little electrification, nonetheless it’s ripe for disruption. This phase accounts for 60% of the general industrial car phase. A mixture of development of organized and e-commerce retail gamers by the likes of Amazon and Flipkart mixed with aggressive web zero targets by these firms is pushing electrification on this phase. These group are huge prospects for this vehicular phase with want for first and final mile logistics. Tata Motors once more has launched its providing of a small four-wheeler cargo supply car, the Tata Ace EV. Deliveries of the identical have began in Q1 2023. With an order guide of 39,000 automobiles from the above e-commerce firms, one can anticipate the electrical share of automobiles offered on this phase to develop, relying solely on the ramp of provide by Tata Motors.


We will see that Indian vehicular electrification is lastly gaining tempo throughout segments with some segments racing forward and a few nonetheless lagging behind however nonetheless shifting forward. Summarizing, we see that every of the phase is on the varied factors of adoption S-curve.

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2023 will likely be a get away 12 months for each two-wheelers and automobiles and industrial automobiles ought to lastly see some transition in the direction of electrical, whereas the three-wheeler market will proceed its regular progress.